Indian Philosophy a Critical Survey byChandradhar SharmaBarnes & Noble, INC Its revised British edition was published by Messrs. Bhattacharyya and Dr. in i under the title A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy.. It signifies a natural and. The present treatise is a critical study of different systems of Indian Philosophy based on original sources and its principal value lies in their interpretation.
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A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy book. Read 9 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Aim in this work has been to give a clear, co. A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy by torwordvanquiding.cf Pdf Download This Books. Share. A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy by torwordvanquiding.cf Pdf Download. India. A CRITICAL SURVEY OP INDIAN PHILOSOPHY. By CHANDRADHAR. SHARMA. pp. Eider and Co., London, This original, study of Indian.
Later printing. Book has minimal highlighting on the pages. Front cover is creasing slightly. Seller Inventory WG1sh Used products do not contain supplements and some products may include highlighting and writing.
On almost all fundamental points the author has quoted from the original texts to enable the reader to compare the interpretations with the text. The book is divided into 20 chapters. It opens with the survey of Indian philosophical thought as found in the Vedas, the Upanisads and Bhagavadgita chs. It proceeds to the study of Materialism, Jainism and Early Buddhism chs. It expounds the tenets of the six systems of Indian Philosophy chs. The work is based on author's study of the original sources.
On almost all fundamental points he has either quoted from the original texts or referred to them to enable the interested reader to compare the interpretations with the texts.
This is Brand New. Seller Inventory UDH The present treatise is a critical study of different systems of Indian Philosophy based on original sources and its principal value lies in their interpretation On almost all fundamental points the author has quoted from the original texts to enable the reader to compare the interpretations with the text The book opens with the survey of Indian philosophical thought as found in the Vedas the Upanisads and Bhagavadgita It proceeds to the study of Materialism Jainism and Early Buddhism Sunyavada Vijnanavada and Svatantra Vijnanavada It expounds the tenets of the six systems of Indian Philosophy with special reference to Sankara the pre-Sankara and the post-Sankara Vedanta and the essentials of Buddhism and Vedanta in comparison and contrast It discusses the doctrines of Vedanta as interpreted by Ramanuja Madhva Nimbarka Vallabha Caitanya and Aurobindo It also contains a clear exposition of Saiva Siddhanta Kashmir Saivism and Sakta Schools pp.
Better World Books: West Reno, NV, U. Ships from Reno, NV. BookVistas New Delhi, India. The present treatise is a critical study of different systems of Indian Philosophy based on original sources and its principal value lies in their interpretation. The book opens with the survey of Indian philosophical thought as found in the Vedas, the Upanisads and Bhagavadgita.
It expounds the tenets of the six systems of Indian Philosophy with special reference to Sankara, the pre-Sankara and the post-Sankara Vedanta, and the essentials of Buddhism and Vedanta in comparison and contrast. Aim in this work has been to give a clear, comprehensive and critical account of the various systems of Indian philosophy.
The book will be found useful by all those who want a clear and accurate exposition of the development of Indian philosophical thought in one volume which is neither too small nor too big. On almost all fundamental points the author has either quoted from the original texts or referred to them to enable the interested reader to compare the interpretations with the texts.
Throughout the exposition of the different systems which involves criticism and evaluation, the author has tried to be fair and impartial to them and to present many difficult and obscure points in as clear and correct a manner.
Ignorance of Indian philosophy, specially of Buddhism and Vedanta, is still profound and has given rise to un-informed or ill-informed accounts and misleading criticisms. It has been the aim of the book to remove such misconceptions.
Honest difference of opinion in interpretation is legitimate in philosophy, but it does not entitle us to impose our own preconceived notions on a system which are repelled by its original texts. The work is only an outline of a vast subject and has no pretensions to completeness. A readable copy. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact.
Pages can include considerable notes-in pen or highlighter-but the notes cannot obscure the text. At ThriftBooks, our motto is: Read More, Spend Less. Seller Inventory GI5N Library Binding. Hardcover with dust jacket. Text contains underlining on pages Covers show very minor shelving wear. Binding is tight, hinges strong. Dust jacket shows edge wear. Previous owners name on end paper.
Ships same or next business day!. Published by Rider and Company, London Rider and Company, London, Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good Dust Jacket.
Tightly bound. When a dreamer awakes. But it is neither smelt nor tasted nor seen nor touched nor heard. The dream-objects are sublated in the waking life. T h e body is a mere instrument for the manifestation of consciousness and cannot be regarded as its cause. And on the other hand. Sight is not possible without light. But it is not. The two horns of a bull which are always found together cannot be regarded as causally related. When a person gets up after seeing a tiger in a dream.
This proves that consciousness persists through the three stages of waking life. The animals also possess the living body. But the argument is wrong. Religion is the means of livelihood of the priests. All values are mere phantoms created by a diseased mind. The pleasure of the pig is certainly not the same as the pleasure of the philosopher. It was for this reason that. Should nobody sow seeds because of animals?
There is no soul surviving death. There is no other world. The individual hedonism also has an appeal to the animal in man and pleasure. The assertion of the reality of matter is shared with Materialism by all schools of realistic pluralism. Out of the four human values— Dharma.
Kama and Moksa— only Kama or sensual pleasure is regarded as the end and Artha or wealth is regarded as the means to realize that end.
Rejection of God also is not so much responsible for their downfall. There is a qualitative difference in pleasure. The main cause. Life without values is the animal life. Sensual pleasure is a very faint shadow of the supreme pleasure.
But it is not the sole cause. Pleasure is regarded as mixed up with pain. No value should be rejected. Artha and Kama. But because man is not merely a biological animal. It must be given meaning and arranged into order by conception or thought. His predecessor. It is included under Mati. He flourished in the sixth century b.
Of these. Shruta means knowledge derived from authority. Immediate knowledge is further divided into Avadhi. Perceptual knowledge therefore is regarded as mediate since it presupposes the activity of thought. Perceptual knowledge which is ordinarily called immediate.
Jaina teachings were existent. Mati includes both perceptual and inferential knowledge. It is applied to the liberated souls who have conquered passions and desires and karmas and obtained emancipation. Thus Mati and Shruta which are the two kinds of mediate knowledge have as their instruments perception. From this standpoint we look at a thing as having both universal and particular qualities and we do not distinguish between them. Here we emphasize the universal qualities and ignore the particulars where they are manifested.
It can be acquired only by the liberated souls. It becomes fallacious when both universals and particulars are regarded as separately real and absolute.
It becomes fallacious when universals alone are treated as absolutely real and particulars are rejected as unreal. Avadhi is clairvoyance. Avadhi is direct knowledge of things even at a distance of space or time. It is not limited by space. Hence they are called immediate.
When taken as absolute. Naya means a standpoint of thought from which we make a statement about a thing. It cannot go beyond spatial and temporal limits. When this partial truth is mistaken to be the whole truth. The particulars are reduced to a series of moments and any given moment is regarded as real.
It is not possible for us. According to it. When a thing is taken to be either as permanent only or as momentary only. It becomes fallacious when particulars alone are viewed as real and universals are rejected as unreal. Each naya or point of view represents only one of the innumerable aspects possessed by a thing from which we may attempt to know or describe it.
Matter pudgaia and spirit jlva are regarded as separate and independent realities. We can know the 1 anantadharmakam vastu. And each atom and each soul possesses innumerable aspects of its own. A thing has got an infinite number of characteristics of its own.
Here the real is identified with the momentary. Among the nayas which refer to words.
Every word refers either to a thing or quality or relation or action. It means that a word is necessarily related to the meaning which it signifies.
When any such partial viewpoint is mistaken for the whole truth. It persists in and through all attributes and modes. Jainism points out that both are the two sides of the same thing. A thing has many characters and it exists independently. They are like the two sides of the same coin.
It is called substance dravya. As Jainism takes into account all these partial views. T o know all the aspects of a thing is to become omniscient.
Therefore the Jainas say that he who knows all the qualities of one thing. Early Buddhism emphasizes the many. As a matter of fact. Substance is defined as that which possesses qualities and modes. Viewed from the point of view of substance. Substance and attributes are inseparable because the latter are the permanent essence of the substance and cannot remain without it. Reality is a unity-and-difference or difference-and-unity. But it also has its changing modes and therefore is subject to origination and decay.
All our judgments. Thus the man who caught the ear said the elephant was like a country-made fan. But he who can see the whole elephant can easily know that each blind man feels only a part of the elephant which he mistakes to be the whole animal. But this too smacks of agnosticism and Jainism. All judgments are double-edged. The blind men put their hands on the different parts of the elephant and each tried to describe the whole animal from the part touched by him.
Affirmation presupposes negation as much as negation presupposes affirmation. The infinitely complex reality ananta-dharmakam vastu admits of all opposite predicates from different standpoints. All judgments are conditional. Probability suggests scepticism and Jainism is not scepticism.
Reality has infinite aspects which are all relative and we can know only some of these aspects. Almost all philosophical. Absolute affirmation and absolute negation both are wrong. And all the six quarrelled among themselves. Hence categorical or absolute predication is ruled out as erroneous. This view makes Jainism catholic. A statement of a partial truth knowing that it is only partial.
Our knowledge of the table is necessarily relative. We can know an object in three ways through durniti. The Jaina logic distinguishes seven forms of judgment. For us the table must exist in its own matter as made of wood. The table exists in itself as an absolutely real and infinitely complex reality. So a table is both existent and non-existent viewed from different standpoints and there is no contradiction in it.
Our judgments represent different aspects of the manysided reality and can claim only partial truth. It does not exist in other matter. The seven steps are as follows: Like light and darkness they cannot remain together. When we affirm the two different stand-points successively we get the third judgment— a thing is both real and unreal of course in two different senses. Unity and plurality.
It becomes indescribable. As we have just remarked that we can know a thing in relation to its own matter. But these criticisms are off the mark.
The remaining three are the combinations of the fourth with the first. Dharmaklrti says: These shameless and naked Jainas make contradictory statements like a mad man. You cannot blow hot and cold in the same breath. This is the fourth judgment. All judgments are relative and conditional and all truth is partial.
The fact that all our judgments are relative requires us to presuppose an Absolute in which all the relatives fall and through which they are manifested. Hence only the first four steps are real. If all truth is partial. Not understanding this and fearing imaginary contradictions and mistaking partial and relative views as absolute.
He says that no theory can be sustained by mere probability. If everything is probable. But even now. If we take to combinations. There is no room for contradiction here. These are not the inventions of the Jainas. A thing is regarded as real from the view-point of its own matter. Relativity itself cannot be sustained without the Absolute.
A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy
Relativity itself is related to the Absolute and presupposes its existence. The Jainas forget that organic synthesis and not arithmetical addition is the secret of reality. Jainism has bluntly refused to make any such distinction. All human knowledge is empirical and therefore relative. Being wedded to common sense realism and having pinned its faith to seeming pluralism. What they give is merely identity plus difference. Some schools teach Being..
It is the Absolute which gives life. If you reject the noumenal. They cannot be woven into a philosophical garland in the absence of the Absolute which alone can act as the thread. The relatives are bound together in the Absolute.
But while they have made a distinction between the empirical and the absolute. The Jainas do not give us a real identity-m-difference. These seven forms of judgment are like scattered pearls or beads or flowers. The Absolute is not all the relatives put together. If you throw away the Absolute.
It refuses to rise higher than the relative. They forget their prejudice against absolutism when they absolutely assert that their teaching alone represents the whole truth.
Jainism has conveniently forgotten the implications of its own logic and has refused to rise above the relative.
A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy
Identity and Universality. Jainism rightly points out that all our knowledge is necessarily relative. It has a bias against absolutism and in favour of common sense realistic pluralism. Thus Yashovijaya says that the Jaina view is evidently the best because it has woven together all the nayas in it. For this a proper synthesis is required which will unify all the nayas. And so on. And in practice this relativity is often forgotten.
Hemachandra also says that other systems are relative and partial and fight against one another. The Absolute is the only thread which can weave them together and it has been wantonly thrown away by Jainism. The Jainas have combined both. All other views are partial and defective. Thus they criticize permanence through the arguments in favour of momentariness and the latter through the arguments supporting the former.
But this is not the way of reaching truth. Plurality and Particularly. In the absence of the Absolute. Hence if the reality of the world is to be preserved. The whole world is the manifestation of the Absolute. The Absolute is immanent in all the categories and gives life and meaning to them. Hence the opponents are out to destroy the world which is to be preserved only by the Jainas. Mallisena and others have criticized and refuted the views of other systems.
If the effect pre-exists in its cause.
Indian Philosophy A Critical Survey
If reality is eternal and permanent. While all other teachings are relatively real. Everything throbs with its presence.
This goes against the Jaina doctrine itself. The Jainas. If reality is momentary and fleeting.
How can a mere bundle of the relatives become itself Absolute? If relativity is the only truth. But putting together different standpoints does not solve the contradictions o f the world. Though the Jainas have always explicitly rejected the distinction between the empirical and the transcendental. The Jainas criticize the conception of the indescribable as self-contradictory.
The Kato and Ano of Heraclitus. This is certainly an admission o f Absolutism. The distinction is vital and has always been maintained in some form or the other by all great philosophers of the world.
They refuse to go higher. It constitutes the essence of the soul in its pure and undefiled condition. Ousted from the front-door. If you throw away the Absolute in your zeal to preserve the relative.
A s it is held to be perfect and intuitive omniscience. And this is exactly what the Jainas have done. T h e avaktavya is also the anirvachaniya which is neither real nor unreal.
The reason for it. The strong bias in favour of pluralistic realism and against absolutism prevents Jainism to realize the implications of its own logic. Hiriyanna also says: Radhakrishnan rightly remarks: They remain content with common sense pluralism and feel no need for any synthesis. He is beyond senses. But as outwardly. The absolute knowledge is viewed as a hodge-podge bundle of the relative tit-bits.
He clearly states the distinction between the empirical and the absolute view-points.
We can go to the higher only through the lower. Kundakunda often approaches Absolutism. Just as the ocean is implicit in the rivers but not explicitly visible. Conduct and Faith. Jiva means the conscious spit it and Ajiva means the unconscious non-spirit. The whole universe is brought under the two everlasting. It is infinite. T h e jivas are divided first into those who are liberated mukta and those who are bound baddha.
The lowest souls which inhabit material atoms appear to be lifeless and unconscious. Infinite Bliss and Infinite Power. Every soul from the lowest to the highest possesses consciousness. They are all without life and consciousness. Purest consciousness is found in the emancipated souls where there is no shred of karma.
It is like the light. Freedom from matter means omniscience and emancipation. Though itself formless. The degrees of consciousness are due merely to the karmaobstacles. Infinite Knowledge. All souls are really alike. T h e soul is coextensive with the body. But it does not extend in space like matter. The latter live in the atoms of earth. Though we find souls in this world as embodied and as possessing the senses and the manas which help the souls to know. Every soul.
The category of Ajiva is divided into matter pudgaia. The soul in its intrinsic nature possesses Infinite Faith. The soul of an ant is as big as the body of it and the soul of an elephant is as big as the elephant itself. T h e degrees of consciousness may vary according to the obstacles of karma. It is not perceived.
Knowledge is not a property of the soul. The mobile souls are again classified as those who have two senses e. Just as the light fills the space where it is burning and just as many lights may remain in the same place without coming into conflict with one another.
They become differentiated by developing the qualities of colour. Hence the distinction of the elements of earth. The latter can be divided into moments. They only help or favour motion or rest.
Matter possesses the four qualities of colour. This word is used in Buddhism in the sense of a soul. Like space and time. All substances except time have extension and extension is afforded only by space. Space itself is not extension. They are inferred as the conditions which help motion and rest respectively.
All atoms are qualitatively alike and indistinguishable. Dharma cannot generate motion nor can Adharma arrest it. An atom anu is supposed to be the smallest part of matter which cannot be further divided. The former makes continuity or duration possible and is infinite. Dharma and Adharma are used here not in their popular sense of merit and demerit. These atoms are supposed to house the souls. In one. They are formless and passive. It is one and indivisible.
Like time. Sound is regarded not as a quality. It is inferred as the condition of extension. The state when karmic particles actually begin to flow towards the soul to bind it is called Asrava or flow.
By the possession and practice of right faith. And passions are due to ignorance. Buddhism and Vedanta. The state when these particles actually infiltrate into the soul and bind it is called Bandha or bondage. This state is called Moksa or liberation.
Sometimes virtue punya and vice papa arc added to these seven to make up the nine categories of Jainism. Passions attract the flow of karmic matter into the souls. Everything else in Jainism is said to be the elaboration of this fundamental teaching. This right knowledge is produced by faith in the teachings karm a Hence Jainism is primarily an ethical teaching and its aim is the perfection of the soul.
These five states together with the Jiva and the Ajiva make the seven principles of Jainism. It is for this reason that we find life and consciousness in every part of the body. Ignorance of truth and four passions— anger krodha.
Asrava or the flow of matter towards the soul is the cause of bondage and samvara or the stoppage of this flow is the cause of liberation. In bondage. So ignorance is the real cause of bondage. This state is called samvara or stoppage. So right knowledge is the cause of liberation. But in the case of the laymen. Denial of God does not necessarily mean atheism in Indian Philosophy.
These five vows are: Hence right faith. The word the Hence faith is necessary. They are inseparably bound up and perfection of one goes with the perfection of the other two. Right knowledge dawns when all the karmas are destroyed by right conduct. In Jainism the two are organically related and the difference between them is only one of degree and not of kind. In Buddhism the clergy and the laity were not organically connected and the former were emphasized at the expense of the latter.. In the case of monkdom it is extremely strict.
Right faith samyak darshana. In the case of the monks. There is only one fundamental five-fold spiritual discipline in Jainism. And it is'right conduct which perfects knowledge since theory without practice is empty and practice without theory is blind. Laymen are afforded opportunities to rise to the spiritual height of the monks by easy steps. Jainism like Buddhism is a religion without God. Brahmacharya is restricted to chastity and Aparigraha to contentment.
They are always found together. Things have creation and dissolution because of their modes. Passions are due w h ile The same bias against Absolutism is responsible for the pluralism of souls and material elements.
The Tirthankaras who were mortal beings like us. When Jainism has rejected all qualitative differences in souls as well as in atoms.
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But the problem before Jainism is: How can spirit and matter really unite? Spirit is regarded as possessing pure consciousness. Jainism is a religion of self-help.
All the material elements are reduced to one category of Pudgaia and all of them and even their atoms are all declared to be qualitative alike. The fire of asceticism must burn all emotions and desires to ashes. Jainism does not take this distinction as absolute. Matter is regarded as unconscious. But the common Jaina due to the weakness of man has not been able to rise to this strict logic and has. Every liberated soul is a god.
There is no necessity of bringing in God to explain creation. No attempt is made to synthesize JIva and Pudgaia. Karma is supposed to be the link which binds the soul to matter. Strictly speaking. We are all potential Jinas. Though the Jivas are intrinsically all alike and all possess infinite faith. Karma is due to passions. Spirit and matter are really united. Jainism says that experience tells us that we never find spirit and matter as separate entities. The differences between them do not affect the fundamental philosophical doctrines.
It may be actual but not real. They are always presented to us as mixed up and inter-acting. If ignorance and karma are inseparable from the soul. Why not regard spirit and matter as the two aspects of the same reality which ultimately transcends them both?
Nobody denies relativity and plurality in this empirical world. Now the question is: See S. Haridas Bhattacharyya ed. See K. Mahadevan, Outlines of Hinduism Bombay: Chetana, p.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. I Calcutta: Sinha Publishing House, pp.
See Andrew D. Ainslie T. Embree ed. Norton, p. XV Google Scholar See F.Krsnapati Mishra sums up the teachings of Materialism thus: But the problem before Jainism is: Only by knowing it can one cross the ocean of birthahd-death. Even the devotees are granted knowledge by the Lord so that they may realize the goal. Rider, London, After about a century. The whole universe is brought under the two everlasting.
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